The TAMBOURAS (Greek: ταμπουράς [tabuˈras] is a Greek traditional string instrument of Byzantine origin. It has existed since at least the 10th century, when it was known in Assyria and Egypt. At that time, it might have between two and six strings, but Arabs adopted it, and called it a Tanbur. The characteristic long neck and two strings, tuned 5 notes apart. It also similar instrument Tambur in Turkish and each of them have same origin. Greek playing tambouras, 18th-century painting
Female Musician in The Painted Wooden Ceiling of the Palatine Chapel. Cappella Palatina, Famtima period (c 1140 a. Not a lute but uses the same sound holes as on the lutes from other pictures on the chapel ceiling. Sound holes also like Ganharan lute.
Famtima period (c 1140 a.) Oud or lute player ,Palatine Chapel. Sound holes like those on Cantigas de Santa Maria, showing both drilled dots as well as or "m" shaped. The m shaped squiggles are reminiscent of Ganharan and Chiniese/Japanese pipa/biwa.
Islamic lute in Europe: Muslim musician in the Cappella Palatina, Islamic side, Palermo, Italy, 1140 AD. Soundholes resemble those in CAntigas de Santa Maria and to GAndharan and Chinese pipa/Japanese biwa soundholes.