the slums of Kingston Jamaica, where the local bands were playing a musical mixture of American R&B, Caribbean, and pan-African sounds, drummers began to emphasize the afterbeat, the 2nd and 4th beats (4/4 time) in unison with the piano and guitar while the bass played walking quarter notes. The musicians called the sound "Upside-down R&B". It soon became known as "Ska".
Canadian photographer Beth Lesser spent the immersed in Jamaican dancehall culture. Her images of the DJs, MCs and promoters from this pivotal musical period can be seen at London’s KK Outlet until 30 January