The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves are complex of Buddhist cave grottos dating from the 5th to 14th century between the cities of Turpan and Shanshan (Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan Desert near the ancient ruins of Gaochang in the Mutou Valley, a gorge in the Flaming Mountains, China. They are high on the cliffs of the west Mutou Valley under the Flaming Mountains, and most of the surviving caves date from the Uyghur Kara-Khoja kingdom around the 10th to 13th centuries
The Mogao Caves or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: 莫高窟; pinyin: Mògāo kū), also known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas (Chinese: 千佛洞; pinyin: qiān fó dòng), form a system of 492 temples 25 km (16 mi) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, located in Gansu province, China. May also be known as the Dunhuang Caves. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years.The first caves were dug out 366 AD as places of Buddhist meditation and worship.