Traditional 'Yabusame' Mounted Archery in Japan. The rider drives their horse as fast as they can, then retracts their bow and attempts to shoot 3 targets in close succession. The riders were typically samurai, and the sport was ceremonially performed so the samurai could demonstrate their horsemanship and archery prowess.
Yabusame (流鏑馬) is a type of mounted archery in traditional Japanese archery. An archer on a running horse shoots three special "turnip-headed" arrows successively at three wooden targets. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yabusame